Pakistan floods: What you need to know

By | October 21, 2022

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#Pakistan just experienced one of the most devastating #floods in its #history. Villages have washed away and millions are affected. How did this happen?

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Today’s video is sponsored by conflict Of Nations a free online strategy game Where you choose a real country to lead Into a modern global conflict up to 128 Other players are moving their units Across the map in real time so to win You need to form alliances and construct All types of units including tanks Jets And submarines conflict of Nations is a Huge game a game round can take weeks to Complete which makes Logistics as Necessary as tactics the key to Victory Is to think ahead and Forge alliances What I like most about the game is that You can play with the same account on Both PC and mobile that convenience sets It apart from other games using our link Below you will get an exclusive gift 13 000 gold and one month of Premium Subscription for free the offer is only Available for the next 30 days so don’t Lose any time In late summer 2022 flooding devastated Pakistan rainfall battered the country For months culminating with the wettest August ever for the southern provinces By September one-third of the country Was underwater including an area 100 Kilometers wide across the Indus River At Sindh as of this writing there have Been more than 1700 deaths 3 500 Kilometers of roads and 150 bridges are Damaged 30 million people are displaced And over 1 million homes are destroyed

For a wealthy State these challenges Would be colossal but for Pakistan the Floods are about the latest Link in a Chain of disasters infrastructure damage Crop destruction and water-borne Diseases will only worsen existing Problems of inflation Financial crises Political unrest and Fundamentalist Militancy Geopolitical catastrophe always moves Gradually and then suddenly so those who Have not crossed the river should not Laugh at those drowning [Music] The Indus River is a cradle of Civilization settled agriculture along Its banks dates back more than 5 000 Years and to this day the majority of Southern Pakistan lives in its proximity Other populations are concentrated in Areas surrounding Karachi and the Northern tributaries of Punjab Walled off by mountains in the Northwest And the Eastern tar desert Pakistan’s Economy developed to be inward facing And agriculture dependent the Indus Emerges from trans Himalayan glaciers Flowing 3 000 kilometers before out Falling into the Arabian Sea annual Flows amount to nearly 79 billion cubic Meters of water half the volume of the Dead Sea of this around 13 is impounded At the tarbella dam the largest dam in The world harnessing the Indus provides

Hydropower assists in irrigation and Mitigates floods but there is an Intractable problem glacial melt Accounts for nine tenths of the river Flows resulting in large-scale Sedimentation for context sedimentation Is a force of nature mostly seen in Glacial streams where the lower reaches Of the river’s terraform the nearby Lands think of a glass of fruit juice Where the heavier materials sink to the Bottom so in Northern Pakistan as the Powerful glaciers move forward they Crush rocks producing large sediment Volumes carried Downstream by a steep Gradient before settling in tarbella Over time the Dam’s capacity decreased From 12 billion to 7.8 billion cubic Meters and degraded its structural Integrity the dam is literally sinking Similar issues afflict the mangala dam On the Jalen river between 1967 and 2006 Its Reservoir shrank from 7.3 billion to 5.8 billion cubic meters and though new Dams pushed its volume back up to 9 Billion cubic meters sedimentations Continues to eat away at its cap Capacity even worse the sediment cannot Be flushed out doing so would damage the Downstream structures needed for crop Irrigation in particular Southern Pakistan relies on Canal systems The Sakkar Barrage in Sint irrigates an area The size of Belgium while two-thirds of

The province relies on agriculture for Its livelihood the annually produced 100 Million tons of farm Commodities are a Crucial source of export earnings even So Riverside Land Clearing reduces the Soil’s ability to absorb Monsoon rains It also increases runoffs exacerbating The sediment problem any fix to Pakistan’s water management issues can Thus only be temporary one proposed Solution is the DI Amir Basha Dam and Pakistan-controlled Kashmir which will Have a 10.5 billion cubic meter capacity For years territorial disputes with India over Kashmir the third investors But in 2020 Islamabad signed 2.7 billion Dollars in contracts with Chinese firms To build the dam when completed the Project would extend the lifespan of the Tarbella dam but only by 35 years before Nature starts chipping away at the Artificial instruments Pakistan is thus Forced to Kick the Can down the road Forever Building New River Infrastructures only to see them wither Away essentially sedimentation is Insoluble in 2022 these issues met with Short-term weather events creating some Of the worst floods in Pakistan’s History starting in April Heath waves Scorched the country producing long Periods above 40 degrees celsius this Generated a forest fire in shirani Spreading over 26 1000 hectares Ash and

Smoke darkened Glacier Ice making it Absorb more sunlight and causing 7200 Glaciers in the north to melt at an Unprecedented rate warmer air also Carried more moisture combining cool Surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea To generate between five and eight times Balochistan and since average annual Rainfall meanwhile widespread unlawful Real estate construction on plane floods Left Pakistani communities vulnerable to Inundation besides damages to housing And infrastructure more than 18 000 Schools were destroyed due to floods This was particularly devastating as Pakistan was already facing an education Crisis with more than 23 million Children not in schools the total Destruction caused by the floods is Estimated at 40 billion dollars or One-tenth of Pakistan’s GDP short term The flooding has undermined Pakistan’s Food supply at 2018 National nutrition Survey found that 37 percent of Pakistanis were food insecure the Average citizen spent half their wages On food leaving them vulnerable to price Fluctuations and shortages Many rural pakistanis thus rely on Subsistence crops by this measure synth Was particularly hit hard losing Four-fifths of rice crops and 70 percent Of cotton crops meanwhile in Balochistan 1 million cattle perished the loss of

Food and cotton exports will hit Industries hard 22 billion dollars of Annual export earnings is now considered Lost Still worse Islamabad will need to Import at least 500 000 tons of weed Which will deplete its scarce foreign Exchange reserves currently sufficient For one month of imports These ongoing supply issues have pushed Up local food prices by up to 500 Percent adding to inflation and Spreading the crisis to other economic Sectors Efforts to raise the minimum wage in Response fell flat since three quarters Of pakistanis are employed informally Manufacturers are thus scaling back Production in anticipation of declining Sales All these troubles add to an ongoing Debt crisis estimated at three quarters Of Pakistan’s GDP Beginning in 2019 Islamabad sought loans From the IMF a second round of loans in January 2022 was allowed on the Condition Islamabad imposed regressive Taxes and cut fuel subsidies by March However popular discontent moved then Prime minister Imran Khan to reintroduce Subsidies creating tensions between him And the military which wanted to stay in The imf’s good graces thereafter Han was Deposed in a no-confidence vote his

Replacement Shabbat Sharif pulled back Subsidies and imposed a levy increasing Petroleum prices by two-thirds and Electricity prices by half this pushed Inflation to 27 the highest in 40 years And by May 2022 most pakistanis Considered inflation their biggest Concern impoverished families have seen Their incomes decreased by two-fifths And often the only respite available is To push their children into the Workforce or take out predatory payday Loans Against these structural problems Economic recovery will be hampered by The fact it could take six months for The flood waters to recede water-borne Diseases are on the rise and there has Been an uptake in gastroenteritis Dysentery hepatitis and malaria cases With more than 300 deaths so far and More Than 3 million Children at Risk of Serious illness yeah not surprisingly The severe conditions are breathing Political turmoil polarization and Extremism after being ousted Imran Khan Continued to host large rallies Leveraging political discontent to win Several local elections he has Maintained this momentum despite Continued legal troubles and given Pakistan’s crippled state sharif’s Government will struggle to counter his Criticisms yet not all opposition will

Be parliamentary militant attacks Persist despite a ceasefire between the Government and the Pakistani Taliban Some are concerned the group is using Proxies to wage attacks while Maintaining plausible deniability Moreover Isis attacks have continued Against Personnel in hybrid pactankwa Catastrophe Mass displacement and Political alienation could swell the Ranks of extremist groups so no matter What happens the instability is Concerning for Pakistan’s International Partners especially China in addition to Its IMF obligations Pakistan owes more Than one billion dollars to Chinese Firms due to Deals related to the China-pakistan economic Corridor Islamabad recently agreed to pay Chinese Power plants 200 million dollars in September to save them from devault However Pakistan’s Financial commitments To China have caused tensions with the IMF which is concerned that repayments To Chinese firms could become Unsustainable in the long term so Pakistan stance obligations are stuck Between China and the IMF with no good Negotiation options left All of this is a perfect storm one Exacerbated by the West’s historical Carbon emissions which has become a Lightning rod for anti-western and Anti-imf sentiment and some of the

Arguments are valid even today Pakistan Accounts for less than one percent of The global emissions yet calls for Climate reparations will likely Fall Flat in all probability Islamabad will Have to make do with foreign aid though The 500 million dollar pledge towards Rebuilding efforts is a mere drop in the Bucket against the 40 billion dollars Repair bill Pakistan’s long-term water management System combined with its unique wetter Events has produced unprecedented floods And given climate change Trends these Long-running issues will continue in the Future and yet for Geographic reasons Pakistan is dependent on Riverside Agriculture and when combined with its Economic precariousness the risk of Flooding is nearly impossible to solve Without significant outside help until Then Pakistan will be at the mercy of The Indus which gives life with one hand And takes it away with the other I’ve been your host children from Caspian report special thanks to Anton Murrell for researching this topic and If you want to help us out to beat the YouTube algorithm comment like and share Thank you for watching and so

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