Bolivia wants its coastline back

By | November 30, 2022

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Bolivia’s search for ocean access is relentless. So much so that even though it has been #landlocked for well over a century, #Bolivia still maintains a navy and commemorates the loss of its coastline annually.

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[Music] Nations suffer more often in imagination Than in reality Bolivia is an exception The country is a resource Powerhouse With extensive deposits of oil gas tin Silver gold tungsten and iron ore it is Also home to one quarter of the world's Lithium deposits yet there is a problem In the 1880s the country's Coastline was Cut off following a bitter conflict with Neighboring Chile as such being Landlocked has severely hampered Bolivia's export-oriented economy Costing it an estimated one-fifth of the Overall GDP there is a lot at stake and La Paz has pursued many strategies to Get its Coastline back from negotiation To litigation at the Hague to mitigation Strategies like a transcontinental Corridor Bolivia's search for ocean Access is Relentless so much so that Even though it has been landlocked for Well over a century Bolivia still Maintains a navy and commemorates the Loss of its Coastline annually so what's The story here how did Bolivia became Landlocked and why does it still claim a Corridor to the Pacific Ocean [Music] Today's video is sponsored by kamikoto Knives when first approached by kamikoto I was a bit surprised but then I started Digging into the history kamikoto knives Are meticulously crafted from techniques

Dating back to the Edo period of Japan And crafted only from high quality Japanese steel from the mountains of Niagara and a few other places Japanese Steel is a big deal and with kamikoto You know you're getting the real deal Now I'm not much of a cook so let's see What these knives do cutting through Some food [Music] Look how clean that cut is the knives Are used by Michelin star chefs all over The world kamikoto is so confident in Its knives that each comes with a Lifetime guarantee plus each set comes In a beautiful heavy duty Ash wood box So they can be stored away safely and Given away as a gift kamikoto is Currently running a massive Black Friday Sale and is offering an extra fifty Dollars off any purchase with discount Code Caspian 10. go to Caspian10 and help support the channel [Music] Bolivia has given much to the world but Has very little nested on the Andean Plateau the country's Alpine climate Sheltered indigenous peoples from Tropical diseases harsh conditions on The Atacama coast and the Inland Charcoal meant settlements were few and Far so when the Spanish colonized the Area they set up shop in the mountains Over the following centuries the new

Rulers extracted around 85 000 tons of silver from the town of Potosi at the cost of 7 million lives Thus upon Independence in 1825 Bolivia Inherited an economy built on resource Extraction and though it had a coastline In the Atacama literal the area was Depopulated leaving its border with Chile vague this hands-off attitude Changed with the discovery of nitrates And copper near mejiones in the mid-19th Country though Bolivia had a better Claim to the region Chilean mining Interests had British diplomatic and Financial backing before long Chile was Creating new facts on the ground Establishing a mining industrial complex With which Bolivia could not compete Both States sought to resolve their Boundaries with several border treaties But to no avail and though agreements in 1866 and 1874 gave Bolivia taxation Rights over Chilean mining companies The Lion's Share of the benefits still flow To Santiago with a resource conflict Looming Bolivia entered a secret Alliance with Peru while Chile built up Its Navy ultimately the trigger for Conflict came in 1878 when Bolivia Reneged on its treaty obligations by Raising taxes on Chilean mining firms When they refused to pay the Bolivian State seized their assets Chilean forces Responded by occupying the port of

Antofagasta and when news leaked of the Bolivia Peru Alliance Chile declared war On both States in April 1879. though They had Superior numbers Peru and Bolivia found themselves outmatched Within months Bolivian forces were Expelled into the highlands thereafter The conflict continued largely as a Naval war between Chile and Peru Eventually things came to a halt in 1883 With Chile capturing much of the Pacific Coast leaving Bolivia completely Landlocked Since then Bolivia has contested the Legitimacy of the post-war settlement The final 1904 peace agreement granted Chile resource-rich Atacama territories And by 1900 taxes levied on Atacama Mining exports had caused a five-fold Increase in Chilean State revenues while Bolivia's and Peru's potential revenues Were cut by half La Paz watched on as Chile enriched itself from its former Territories while Bolivia's export Prospects were hampered by its Landlocked state And yet even if Santiago wanted to Restoring Bolivia's Coastline would be Impractical since Chile also conquered Land from Peru giving back the Bolivian Coastline would convert its Northern Territories into an exclave rendering Their commercial ports useless so on the Off chance that Chile was to give a

Coastline to Bolivia it would concede Former Peruvian territories but this in Itself is problematic under their 1929 Border settlement Lima has veto power Over any land swaps concerning its Former territory Ergo unless Santiago Gets Lima's permission it cannot Grant Bolivia aport at arika and such Developments are unlikely without Lima Obtaining further concessions Notwithstanding these issues Chile and Bolivia have tried mending ties most Notably in 1975 at the time time both States were cia-packed dictatorships and Through their shared Pariah status they Found empathy for one another diplomatic Relations were restored but Chile's Offer proved insubstantial rather than Grant arika Bolivia would obtain a land Corridor to its North but this area was Too shallow to build a commercial port And the fact that Bolivia was to pay 200 Million dollars in compensation proved a Deal breaker Peru stepped in proposing Joint administration of arika but this Offer was also rejected frustrated Bolivia again broke off diplomatic Relations with Chile in 1978. even So La Paz argues that Santiago is legally Bound to negotiate and in 2013 the Government of Evo Morales took the case To the Hague Olivia raised several bases For this claim in particular it argued That statements made by Chilean

Officials during the 1975 talks had Induced Bolivia to rely to its detriment On the promise of further negotiations Bolivia hoped that this argument would Raise an estoppel obliging Chile to Reopen talks yet the Court's 2018 Decision found that no such obligation Existed or if it did Chile had fulfilled It by holding subsequent negotiations For Morales regaining C access was a Priority Bolivia holds vast lithium Deposits the the demand for which has Surged in recent years Morales hoped to Create a domestic battery manufacturing Industry symbolically in the old silver Mining town of kotosi Bolivia would thus Move up the value chain and break its Resource curse and ocean access would Make Bolivian bulk exports more Competitive Simultaneously La Paz pursued a plan B Seeking foreign investment by realigning With Beijing in particular Morales Sought Chinese financing for a Transcontinental rail Corridor to ease Bolivia's landlocked reality the mega Project connects Brazil via the Bolivian Highlands to the Peruvian city of ILO Where Bolivia has access to duty-free Port facilities yet the project hit Several delays and its viability has Been undermined by the development of an Alternative route through Paraguay Morales clung to power to realize his

Vision bending constitutional Conventions around term limits in the Process in the 2019 election however Alleged irregularities in the vote count Formed the pretext for a military coup Against Morales even so the year Following popular demonstrations pushed The coup government to hold fresh Elections Luis Arceus emerged as Bolivia's new president and has since Pressed his Chilean counterpart to Reopen talks and remedy their strength Relationship Chilean lawmakers Prioritize restoring diplomatic Relations but Bolivian officials are Primarily interested in negotiating Maritime access but there are other Issues too Chile is currently suing Bolivia in The Hague over water rights To the silala river in the Atacama Desert seemingly both States want Something from each other and so they May yet decide their differences are Better settled out of court land swaps Or open access to Pacific ports for Bolivia could be exchanged for fresh Water or natural gas concessions to Chile resources it lacks Whatever happens each side will have to Give up something and this may be a Necessary step to resolving the Controversy irrespective of the domestic Political consequences Bolivia sees its Sea access as an inviable right no doubt

Chile feels the same about its border Usually though such questions are not Settled by moral rights but by political Negotiations because in international Affairs as in life one gets what they Negotiate not what they deserve I've Been your host shirwan from Caspian Report special thanks to Anton Murrell For researching this topic and if you Want to gain access to sources or perks Like Early Access consider joining our Patreon platform or YouTube membership Program thank you for watching and so [Music]